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Education management in the European Union

Автор: Kukharchuk Petro Mikhailovich

UDC: 351.851:352:378:37.014

Kukharchuk Petro Mikhailovich,

PhD in Public Administration, Associate Professor, Professor of the Department of Social and Humanitarian Disciplines in Municipal Institution uZhytomyr Regional InService Teacher Training Institute" of Zhy-tomyr Regional Council, 10002, Zhytomyr, Str. Mikhailovskaya, 15, tel.: (067) 412 80 55, e-mail: kpmkpma@gmail.com

ORCID: 0000-0002-2051-3298 Кухарчук Петро Михайлович, кандидат наук з державного управлтня, доцент, професор кафедри суспшьно-гу-маттарих дисциплт, Комунальний заклад "Житомирського обласного iнституту тслядипломног педагогiчноï освти" Жи-томирськог обласноï ради, 10002, м. Житомир, вул. Михайлiвська, 15, тел.: (067) 412 80 55, e-mail: kpmkpma@gmail.com

ORCID: 0000-0002-2051-3298 Кухарчук Петр Михайлович,

кандидат наук по государственному управлению, доцент, профессор кафедры общественно-гуманитарных дисциплин, Коммунальное учреждение "Житомирского областного института последипломного педагогического образования" Житомирского областного совета, 10002, г. Житомир, ул. Михайловская, 15, тел.: (067) 412 80 55, e-mail: kpmkpma@gmail.com

ORCID: 0000-0002-2051-3298

EDUCATiON MANAGEMENT iN THE EUROPEAN UNiON

Abstract. This paper attempts to analyze models of education management in the European Union. The feature of the modernization of the education management, mechanisms of educational services supply, trends of educational establishments structural integration, combination of theoretical and practical educational training are charecterized.

УПРАВЛ1ННЯ ОСВ1ТОЮ В КРАШАХ СВРОПЕЙСЬКОГО СОЮЗУ

Анотащя. Зроблено спробу проаналiзувати моделi управлшня осв^ою у крашах бвропейського Союзу. Схарактеризовано особливють модершзацп

управлшня осв1тою, механ1зми надання осв1тн1х послуг, тенденци структурно! штеграци навчальних заклад1в, поеднання теоретично! та практично! ос-в1тньо! п1дготовки.

Ключовi слова: управлшня осв1тою, трасферн1сть осв1ти, транспарент-н1сть осв1ти, амб1валентний п1дх1д, кредити з осв1ти.

УПРАВЛЕНИЕ ОБРАЗОВАНИЕМ В СТРАНАХ ЕВРОПЕЙСКОГО СОЮЗА

Аннотация. Сделана попытка проанализировать модели управления образованием в странах Европейского Союза. Охарактеризовано особенности модернизации управления образованием, механизмы предоставления образовательных услуг, тенденции структурной интеграции учебных заведений, сочетание теоретической и практической образовательной подготовки.

Target setting. Studying the experience of public administration in coordinating the goals and results of the work of the national education systems of the European Union (EU), trying to identify and implement the most effective ways to achieve the goals and results in Ukraine that will allow to reform effectively the education system in our country.

Analysis of basic research and publications. The influence of globalization processes at the present stage of the development of the state has been investigated in the writings of the leading Ukrainian scientists: A. Galchyn-sky, V. Lugovy, V. Kremen, E. Marchuk, P. Saukha, V. Nikitina, I. Zyazyun, N. Nichkalo, N. Protasova , V. Oliynyk and others.

The investigation of the mechanisms of the state management of educational systems of the most developed countries is reflected in the works of N. Abashkina, I. Zyazyun, O. Lokshina,

M. Leschenko, V. Lugovy, L. Pukhov-ska, A. Parinov, A. Sbruev, I. Taranenko, B. Melnichenko, I. Kovchyna, A. Vla-syuk, S. Kalashnikova, G. Dmytrenko, V. Oliynyk, V. Medved, S. Mayborody, K. Korsak and others.

The analysis of the scientific sources on the subject of research indicates that there is no comprehensive study of the transferability of education management in Ukraine, in particular, the combination of academic and practical training.

The measures that ensure transfer-ability (the possibility of free change, transitions) and transparency (mutual transparency, openness) between the unequal in the past and equivalent nowadays trends of educational training — general education and vocational education. The formation of their equivalence was facilitated, in particular, by the latest reforms in a number of the European countries, which made it possible to achieve the highest educational

levels of education, including institutes and universities, for the graduates of vocational education institutions.

The purpose of the proposed analytical study is the desire to separate the factors of education reform in the EU countries and their adaptation to the education system in Ukraine.

The statement of basic materials. Sweden does not have a clear system of vocational education and training. The institutions that provide vocational education and training support the general educational philosophy and the principles of the objectivity, integration and integrity. The vocational education and training in Sweden have the following forms: initial vocational training for those one who are 16-19 years old and who is not qualified yet; the continued vocational training for those who are already working but who still need to acquire certain skills; training for the unemployed: combined training programs.

The responsibility for the main types of vocational education and training is distributed as follows: basic education for adults — Ministry of Education and Science; additional vocational training — Ministry of Education and Science; further vocational training — Ministry of Education and Science; higher education — Ministry of Education and Science; internship — Ministry of Education and Science; vocational training without leavingthe production and labor training program — Ministry of Labour; continued training at the workplace -employers; private courses — employers, corporations, individuals; courses conducted by thelabour organizations -unions.

The evaluation of this experiment in 1990 led to the conclusion that it is

very difficult to find the required number of places in the companies for fulltime internship. It is more difficult to convince small firms to take students and provide supervised practice, to give them opportunity to use the equipment of the required quality. There were dissatisfied people with the modularization of the curriculum in gymnasium and schools. Many teachers and students considered modular learning to be too fragmentary [1, p. 34-38].

The vocational education and training are carried out in vocational schools which provides more than 6 months of training directly in the workplace and in the form of vocational training in the workplace under the relevant agreement.

Most institutions where students receive basic and secondary education are financed by the municipalities. The private schools are under public supervision: they work according to the main curricula and take into account the qualification requirements approved by the National Education Board. Like other educational institutions, they are financed equally by the municipalities and the state. The responsibility for financing education is divided between the state and local authorities. The state&s share in the financingprimary and secondary education is 57 %, and the municipalities — on average 43 %.

The organization and control of the system is the responsibility of the trilateral qualification commissions, which include the representatives of the employers, the national education administration and teachers [2].

In O. Shcherbak&s opinion, the experience of reforming vocational education of Finland deserves attention. In

the 90s years of the last century, the association of small vocational schools in large multidisciplinary and multifunctional vocational educational institutions took place; the decentralization of the management of the vocational education took place which provided for the transfer of the part of the authority to the municipal authorities and at the level of educational institutions [2].

In the system of after-secondary vocational education of Finland, more than 260 analogues of vocational schools of Ukraine were included, occasionally, technical schools. The reform provided their elimination in order to raise the standards of vocational education and the level of training by creating, instead of them, higher vocational (professional) institutes of the model of those existing in Germany or the Netherlands.

Today, the tripartite monitoring systems operate and the recommendations are made both at the national level and (often) the regional level. In Finland, the business representatives have wide opportunities for the cooperation with the central government during the formation of the institutional structures for the professional sector of education [3, p. 124-126].

Analyzing the reasons of the successful transition of Poland to democracy, E.Gregem notes that they are rooted not only in the transformation of its governmental institutions, but also in the activity of the citizens and public organizations. Since non-governmental organizations and most of the public associations were banned during 45 years of the communist regime, the involvement of the citizens was not a tradition for Poland in the early 90s [4].

Today in Poland, the concept of "system of learning" is replaced by the term "education system" (edukation), which is understood broader. Two programs "Program Reform" (1997) and "Structural Reform" (1998) were adopted [5].

The new school system includes training from kindergarten to the postgraduate studies. The VTE starts with 3 year-old profile lyceum or 2-year vocational school which the youth passes after the gymnasium (16 years). The lyceum has a general education and profiles, and its graduate can start studying at the university. The vocational school provides professional qualifications and the possibility of continuing in two-year additional lyceums which give the right to compulsory education in the universities. Both types of schools implement the rule of compulsory education up to the age of 18, both of them open the door for further science. The model of training in a new type of school — a four-year technical lyceum — was developed in accordance with the European standards and it received positive feedbacks from the EU experts.

The professional standards have been developed in accordance with the International Standards for the Classification of Occupations (ISSO) — 1988, adopted at the International Labor Statistics Conference in Geneva in 1987.

In the EU countries, senior school education is classified as post-basic and post-compulsory, it begins after the completion of the first stage of general secondary school (young people aged 15-16), students may choose to continue the way for the further education. These may include the institutions of general secondary education, vocational training, pre-university training, gymnasium and lyceums of academic bias. There are various forms of the implementation of training at this educational level — partial training in combination with the work at the production, distance education, general education combined with gaining the professional qualifications, modular way of organizing training at a senior secondary school.

These and other types of educational services can be provided both complex in upper secondary education institutions (Austria, Great Britain, Ireland, Spain, Norway, Portugal, Finland) and distributed among different types of schools, as it is typical for Denmark, Italy, France, Germany, Greece. Such-variational diversifying approach to the organization of studying in the high school of the European countries, according to conclusions of N. Lavrichen-ko, is determined in some way by the historical and cultural peculiarities of the development of these countries and their educational systems [6].

The peculiarity of the modernization of education management in the EU countries is the tendency towards the structural integration between general and vocational education and the corresponding educational institutions in order to develop a curriculum that combines the theory and practice, academic education and special education for schoolchildren, namely: the strategy of extending the terms of study in the high school which affects the extension of unified basic training cycles (Italy, Spain, the Netherlands), as well as an increase in the age bracket which, after reaching, the young people can consciously choose a branch of the specialization; the creation of new organizational-pedagogical systems that increase the possibility of free movement between various educational and practical, professional sectors of activity (the leaders of this movement are Spain, France, Denmark, Sweden, the Netherlands, Finland); creation of new basic programs, which are the same for all branches of secondary and vocational education, designed for 1-2 years, which is the basis for the further specialization in one or another field of professional activity (Denmark, Finland, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland); the transformation of school education and training into a multicompo-nent model in which each student can choose his or her own trajectory for general secondary education in combination with professional training (France, Italy, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland); the involvement of the employers in the development of a secondary school curriculum is increasing (Denmark, Finland, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain); the combination of the opportunities of educational preparation and practicalactivities of theschoolchildren due to the diversification of the training courses, an integrated approach to their teaching [7, p. 59-60].

In the recent years, the EU has made great efforts to expand the European educational space. In addition to carrying out projects at the EU level, a number of policy documents have been adopted in the field of VTE. The two most important of these are the Barcelona Program "Detailed Work Program for the Achievement of the Goals of General and Vocational Education in Europe until 2010" (2001) and the Copenhagen Declaration "The Declaration on Enhanced European Cooperation in the Field of PTO" (2002), which determine the long-term, strategic development of the PTO and, in particular, the formation of the European educational space. The program "Detailed work program for the achievement of the goals of the system of general and vocational education in Europe until 2010" is based on the following three strategic objectives:

1. Improving the quality and efficiency of the system of the general and vocational education systems in the EU. To achieve the highest quality in the secondary and vocational education in order to enable Europe to berecognized as the analog of quality and importance of its systems, as well as the institutions of general and vocational education worldwide.
2. Facilitated access to the vocational education for all systems of general and vocational education in Europe will be common at such level that the citizens will be able to move freely within these systems and take advantages of their diversity.
3. Openness of general and vocational education systems regarding the content. Europe is open to mutually beneficial cooperation with all other regions and should become the main goal of the students, lecturers and researchers from other regions of the world [8].

In order to implement the Program, the Declaration "Declaration on Enhanced European Cooperation in the field of VTE" was adopted with three prioritydirections, the working group of experts was createdfor each one:

1. Increasing transparency for competencies and qualifications. It is planned to increase the transparency of the functioning of VTE systems, processes

and results of VTE through common tools (EuroBiography, EuroPassport).

2. Quality assurance of VTE. Development of a common model, methodology, criteria and principles for quality assurance of VTE.
3. Development of the European Credit and Accounting System in the field of VTE. Development of common principles for assessing and recognizing what an employee is learning in an informal environment on an informational basis, as well as the development of trustworthy information and advisory support that improves the access to lifelong studying.

It is necessary to pay attention to the fact that regional authorities have a wide range of competences for the management of vocational education in the EU countriesand training and the development of educational policies taking into account the regional needs of the labor market: in particular, local departments of vocational education, employers (UK), the right to qualify the young workers and the issuance of diplomas and certificates is transferred from government agencies to the local authorities (France), the principles of financing the communal employment policy — socio-economic feasibility (but not effectiveness) and the use of different sources, including the municipal budget, the funds of employment services, international funds, church, and other sponsors (Germany), based on the national curriculum, each institution prepares its curriculum, due to the modular structure of training courses for secondary education and training at the workplace, students can combine the classes of general education and professional profiles (Sweden), in the conditions of regionalization, each territory independently solves existing problems related to the local labor market. It is particularly important that the appropriate monitoring and forecasting of the needs oftraining specialists for the countryis implemented at all levels of management, taking into account the development of the national economy (Finland).

Conclusions. The mutual approximation and integration of the main profiles of post-secondary school education — academic, technological and professional — directly affect the formation of the content of the curricula in the EU. In particular, senior students who choose general education, academic and training profilesare offered the training courses of professional and technological directions, and vice versa: a standardized educational component for all students is introduced in professional colleges and lyceums.

Taking into account such measures in Ukraine in reforming the education system will ensure the transfe-rability (the possibility of free change, transitions) and transparency (mutual transparency, openness) between the unequal in the past and equivalent nowadays directions of educational preparation — general and vocational.

The introduction of an ambivalent approach — on the one hand, focuses on higher education, and on the other hand — on the world of work.

The high efficiency of the system of vocational education will be determined by the decentralization of the management, when the state controls the training in vocational schools, and self-government bodies of entrepreneurs — training at the production.

REFERENCES 1. Lahenko O. I. (2004) Strategia jakosti jk osnova osvitnoj polityki krain svitu [Quality of strategy as the basis of educational policy of countries of the world]. Kiev. P. 9-14 [in Ukrainain].

2. Shherban O. (2005) Profesiina osvita i navchannia u Finlandij [Professional education and training in Finland], Kiev. P. 41-44 [in Ukrainain].
3. Raplun A. (2000) Kvalifikaczijni stan-darty u profesijnij osviti Polshi [Qualification standards in vocational education in Poland]. Kiev. P. 51-53 [in Ukrainain].
4. Grexem E. U. (2000) U Polshhi vyx-ovuyut pokolinnaya lideriv: Uroki dlya Ukrajny [In Poland, a new generation of leaders is being trained: Lessons for Ukraine]. Kiev. P. 23-44 [in Ukrainain].
5. Shloshek F. (1998) Reorma sistemy os-vyti Polshi [Reform of the education system of Poland ]. Kiev. P. 20-22 [in Ukrainain].
6. Lavrynenko N. (2006) Kompleksnyj pidxid do zagalnoosvitnoj ta profe-sijnoj pidgotovku uchiv starchogo chkilnogo viku v krajnax Zaxidnoj Yevropu [Comprehensive approach to general and vocational education of senior school students in Western European countries]. Kiev. P. 32-35 [in Ukrainain].
7. Avchenok N. (2005) Yevropejskuj czen-tr rozvytku profesojnoj osvytu [European Center for the Development of Vocational Education]. P. 38-39 [in Ukrainain].
8. Detalna robocha programa z dosyag-nennya czilej sistemy zagalnoj ta profe-sijnoj osvitu v Yevropi do 2010 r [A detailed work program for achieving the goals of the system of general and vocational education in Europe until 2010]. Retrieved from: http:europa.eu.int/ comm/education/policses/2010/vo-cational
education management education transferity education transparency ambivalent approach educational loans управління освітою трасферність освіти транспарент- ність освіти амбівалентний підхід кредити з освіти
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